Operating principle of passenger elevator

Abstract:Now I will briefly introduce Guangri Elevator. The elev […]

Now I will briefly introduce Guangri Elevator. The elevator control system is composed of a PC and input and output parts.

(1) Programmable Controller (PC)

PC adopts 8-bit or 16-bit microprocessor as the core, using programmable memory, with functions such as storing instructions, executing logic, sequence, timing, counting, and calculation. Its working principle is based on the continuous monitoring of input signals (input signals come from devices such as buttons, sensors, and travel switches). When the detected signal state has changed, the control system immediately responds, programmed by the user The internal logic of the machine generates output signals that control the external loads of the controlled system, such as relays, motors, indicator lights, and alarms.

 (2) Input and output part

Buttons, switches, and sensors that send instructions or signals in the system (such as the main power key switch of the base station, the command layer selection button in the car, the hall call button, the overspeed switch, the safety switch, the safety touch panel switch, the limit switch, the hall door Interlock switch, safety window switch, leveling reed relay, etc.) as the input of PC. At the same time, the system is equipped with a transfer switch with and without driver operation and an inspection slow switch to achieve the requirements of the switch and inspection state with and without a driver; the implementation structure of the system such as contactors, relays, car interior and hall exterior Floor indicators, alarms, etc. are used as the output part of the PC.

(3) Brief description of control process

①. Driver control

When going to work, the driver turns on the main power key switch of the base station, the elevator opens the elevator door, and enters the car, pulls the driver-operated switch to the driver's position (the automatic door opening and closing program does not work at this time). When the PC receives the request signal from the passenger and the signal from the safety protection device, the PC will sequentially scan the memory, select the corresponding control program, and send a signal through the output terminal to control the action of the contactor to make the elevator start and accelerate normally. The cut-off time of the starting reactor can be conveniently set through the time relay in the PC according to the ride comfort. When the elevator is approaching the landing floor, the reed relay sends out a signal, and the PC automatically disconnects the express relay after receiving the signal from the reed sensor, and controls the elevator to enter speed change, leveling, and stop through the idle relay. After the elevator stops at the landing, the driver opens the elevator door through the button control to complete the task of picking up and dropping off passengers.

②. No driver control

Without the driver's manipulation, the elevator's door opening and closing, starting, acceleration, speed change, leveling and parking are all controlled automatically by the PC. The door opening and closing time of the elevator can be set according to the needs, generally 4-5s.

③. Check the slow state

When it needs to be overhauled, it can be controlled by the overhaul slow switch. When the maintenance slow car switch is turned on, the PC is in a power-off state, and various control programs are not effective. The driver can only operate the elevator through the button to make the elevator run slowly.

④. Power failure

During the normal operation of the elevator, if there is a sudden power failure, the PC will save the field data at the time of the power failure. When the power is turned back on, it will automatically restore the field data at the time of the power failure and control the elevator operation.

⑤. Emergency treatment

During the operation of the elevator, the PC will continuously collect and identify various discrete signals, and monitor the operation status. Once abnormal signals (such as safety protection device failure, etc.) are found, it will immediately stop executing the normal operation control program and switch to Fault protection: Take corresponding safety protection measures for the entire control system to prevent accidents.

2. General maintenance of passenger elevator

Whether there is an elevator operator or not, the maintenance personnel should check the machine room 1-2 times a day. In addition to keeping the machine room clean and tidy, it is necessary to smell for any peculiar smell, touch whether the temperature rise of the motor, traction machine, etc. is too high, and listen for abnormal noise and abnormal vibration.

(1) Check the brake gap once a week, the gap should be less than 0.7mm, and the gap should be adjusted if the gap is too large. Wire ropes and connections of traction machine safety gears, limit switches, etc., and the working conditions of various equipment in the car.

 (2) Every month, the elevator reducer and various safety devices, hoistway facilities, automatic door structure, sliding bearing clearance of traction sheave guide wheels, etc. must be carefully checked.

(3) Every quarter, each transmission part (traction machine, guide wheel, traction rope, door transmission structure), each safety device (electromagnetic brake, speed limiter tensioning device, safety gear), and each electronic control system ( Contactors, relays, fuses, travel switches, resistors, etc.) should be carefully and frequently adjusted once to remove the dust and oil on each component. If there is a problem, repair it if it can be repaired, and replace it if it can’t be repaired. Resolutely put an end to disease jobs.

(4) Every year after the elevator has been in operation for a full year, a comprehensive technical inspection shall be carried out by professional and technical personnel to conduct a comprehensive and detailed inspection of the current status of the elevator’s machinery, electrical appliances, safety devices, and the degree of wear of main components ,repair. Replace the parts whose wear exceeds the allowable value, and measure the insulation resistance of the electrical appliance and the grounding resistance of the grounding device. Check the power supply lines of the elevator, and repair the damaged ones immediately.

Elevators that have undergone a comprehensive inspection can be put into normal use only after they pass the running test.


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