What are the safety features of a passenger elevator, and how do they work?

Passenger elevators are equipped with various safety features to ensure the well-being of passengers and prevent accidents. These safety features work together to provide a secure and reliable vertical transportation experience. Here are some common safety features and how they work:
Magnetic Brake: This stops the car in case of unintended movement or power loss.Safety Gear: This grips the rails and prevents the car from falling.
Emergency Light and Interphone: These provide communication and visibility.Weighing Device: This detects overloading and prevents the car from moving.
Limit Switches: These stop the car at the upper and lower ends of the shaft.Circuit Breaker: This protects the electrical system from overload or short circuit.
Chain Protection Measures: These ensure that the lifting chain is strong and reliable.Emergency Exit and Alarm Switch: These allow passengers to escape or call for help.
Governor Rope: A governor rope is attached to the elevator car and connected to a governor mechanism. If the elevator moves too fast or experiences freefall, the governor engages and stops the elevator.
Emergency Lighting: In the event of a power failure, elevators are typically equipped with emergency lighting, ensuring that passengers have adequate visibility.
Firefighter's Operation: This mode allows firefighters to control the elevator during emergencies, such as fires, and ensures that the elevator reaches the designated floor for rescue operations.
Automatic Rescue Device (ARD): In case of a power outage, an ARD is activated to return the elevator to the nearest landing, allowing passengers to exit safely.
Alarm and Communication System: Elevators are equipped with communication systems and alarms, allowing passengers to call for help in case of an emergency.
Safety Edges: Some elevators have safety edges on the door edges and car edges that, if touched or obstructed while closing, will trigger the doors to open or stop the car.
CCTV Surveillance: Many modern elevators have CCTV cameras for security and surveillance purposes, which can help in monitoring and recording any incidents.
Access Control Systems: These systems may use key cards, PIN codes, or biometric identification to control who can access certain floors, enhancing security.
In addition, modern elevators have an Overspeed Governor (also known as a speed limiter) which measures and regulates the speed of the elevator. If the elevator exceeds its rated speed, it cuts power to the motor, slowing down the motor shaft. If all ropes are cut, and the cabin enters free fall, a tripping assembly is triggered by the flyweights, causing the safeties to engage and stop the car.
Elevators also have an Overload Sensor that measures the weight of all passengers on board, and if it exceeds the limit, an alarm is triggered, and the elevator will not operate until the load is decreased.
Photocell Sensors create a light curtain between the cabin door and landing doors. When a passenger crosses this light curtain, these sensors send a signal to open the doors.
Door Lock Safety Switches ensure that the elevator will not move as long as one of its doors remains open or not fully closed.Lastly, a Ceiling Fan provides ventilation to renew air inside.These features make elevators very safe, thanks to strict safety codes and regulations they adhere to.

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